Semantee ChattopadhyayParticipant@semantee03July 23, 2021 at 11:26 pm #33237
First-wave feminists believed that political equality will bring social, economic, and educational equality. But this assumption was proven wrong later. There were and educational inequalities. Therefore, the need for second-wave feminism arose. The first wave of feminism was launched by the women who were united at the one page or group. But the second wave of feminism was launched by two different groups of women. They were different from each other based on their approach which formed the groups-
1. Liberal approach
2. Radical approach
Liberal approach: It was the revival of the demands of the first wave feminists. The scope of these demands was expanded to social, economic and educational equality. This approach begins with the publication of Betty Frieden’s Landmark book, “The Feminine Mystique”. This book was published in 1963. She proposed that public spaces should be opened for women. There should be equally educational and economic opportunities. Betty Frieden established the National organisation for women (NOW) in the year 1966. The main target and demand of this organisation were to end social and economic discrimination based on sex. This organisation launched a movement “Equal Rights Amendment” in the US Constitution.
Radical approach: As a movement, the radical approach began in 1968 and continued till the 1980s. This approach began from the protest against the Miss America beauty contest held in 1968. Protestors claimed that such contests objectified women. Radical approach feminists shifted the focus from discrimination to oppression.
The second sex was the book of Simon de Beauvoir which was published in 1949. For the first time in history, this book argued that the problem of women is deep-rooted. The problem was rooted in the culture and institutions of society. News, terms, theories and concepts should be developed to understand the real problem. The work of Simon was further developed in the 1970s by Kate Millet “sexual politics” and Shulamith Firestone “The Dialectics of sex”.
The key features of second-wave feminism were:
1. Second-wave feminism focused on the operation and said that women all over the world face expression. Based on this shared experience, women constituted a united group, social class or sisterhood. Experience of male dominance and oppression is shared.
2. Second-wave feminism believes that the issues of women cannot be resolved through legislation. A Revolution is needed for this purpose.
3. Women cannot accommodate in a society that is based on the principles made by men. A different theory is needed. The qualities and nature of women are superior to men. Women should celebrate their distinct nature rather than abandoning it.Manpreet SinghParticipant@manpreetJuly 24, 2021 at 8:00 am #33238
The second wave started in the sixties and went on in the nineties. The new left grew, and the second wave’s voice was becoming even more radical. Sexuality and reproductive rights were at this stage prominent, with the mobilization focusing much of its emphasis on adopting a Constitutional amendment of equal rights to ensure social equality irrespective of gender. This phase started in 1968 and 1969 with protests in Atlantic City against Miss America. It was a demeaning “cattle parade” that women parodied as a beauty object dominated by patriarchs who were looking to keep their women in their homes, or in stubborn and unpaid occupations. Feminists parodied it. The radical organization in New York called Redstockings held a counter pageant that crowned Miss America’s sheep and put into the bin “oppressive” women’s objects, for example, arms, girdles, high wheels, Makeup, and fake eyelashes. Since feminism’s second wave was neglected and considered less urgent than, for example, the Black Power or the campaign to halt the war in Vietnam, in so many other movements. Feminists reacted to this by creating women-only groups (such as NOW) and raising consciousness. The feminists have been advocating for their place in the sun in publications like “The BITCH Manifesto” and “Sisterhood is Powerful.” In the second wave, based on neo-Marxism and psycho-analytical theory, women were increasingly theoretically subjugated to wider criticism of patriarchy, capitalism, heterosexuality, and the role of women. One of the strains of this complicated and diversified “wave” was the establishment of spaces for women alone and the idea that working together women generate a specific dynamic that in mixed groups is not conceivable, which would ultimately improve the whole world. Some people thought women were more humanitarian, collaborative, inclusive, pacifist, nurturing, democratic and holistic when they approach the problem of resolving, whether because of their long “subjugation” or because of their genetics. The word eco-feminism was invented to give the impression that women were natural proponents of ecology, owing to their biological link to the earth and lunar cycles.DISHA SAPKALEParticipant@42dishaAugust 3, 2021 at 4:23 pm #33313
In early 1960s second wave feminism was started which lasts for two decades and it was the time of feminist activity. Second wave feminism was led by Betty Friedan’s who is American feminist writer and Activist. Second wave focuses on women rights, equality towards women, reproductive rights and second wave also focuses on issues like domestic violence, marital rape, custody, divorce through this wave they bring changes in laws of custody and divorce due to which women will get help to have child’s custody and getting divorce instead of suffering from harassment and violence. In march 1968, Journalist Martha Lear bought the term second wave feminism Article into common jargon in New York Times Magazine. In 1960, the use of birth control has passing the approval from food and drug administration. Liberal Feminists creates the workshops to support and raise their voice against violence and trying to focusing the attention of society towards issues of venereal diseases and women should have safe abortion whereas radical feminists are making awareness amid sexually active women. Second wave feminism has strongly takes stand for violence against women at home and workplace like Physical violence and sexual assault. Greater educational equality happens due to women’s educational equity act of 1972 and 1974. In 1970, Title x was known as health and family planning. Second wave feminism also raise the issue of black women how races are been barrier between women’s opportunities. There are three key features of second wave feminism are oppression, difference, liberation. Second wave feminism was successful because it has change many lives of women and this movement has develop in many positive ways.PALAK KASHIVParticipant@palakAugust 3, 2021 at 7:38 pm #33314
The second wave of feminism is usually started from the 1960s to the 1980s, it was a kind of reaction of women after the end of the second world war, the second wave voiced about right domestic violence, workplace safety issues. The feminist took the effort to make women’s image equal stop considering women of inferior status. The second wave of feminism on both private and public injustice. Women were only doing household chores and men dominate everything. Many organizations and the first lady supported women for getting support women they demanded some laws for women equal pay in the workplace and paid maternity leave, good childcare policies, and health care policies for women.
These women also raised the problem of racial inequality for white women to get opportunities and higher pay for everything whereas black women were treated with very wrong behavior. The second wave was pretty successful because many legal and cultural qualities were provided or discussions were started happening. In India 19th century some males reformers fight against some social evils to established strict legal action to stop practicing child marriage and sati. here many groups were empowering women at that time not fully independent countries slowly women’s problems started raising in the 20th century. Many feminist leaders, journalists, and other such great people confronted women issues and also wrote articles against patriarchal standards national organization for women was established in the year 1966 and it helps women in making second-wave feminism successful.
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