Get Inspired, Be Empowered Forums Feminism History of feminism in India

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    DISHA SAPKALE
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    Feminism means it is a movement that defend for women equal rights for political rights, economical rights, social rights, equal treatment, equal opportunities. There are types of feminism such as liberal feminism, socialist feminism, Marxist feminism and radical feminism . French Philosopher Charles Fourier invented feminism in 1837. Feminist in india look for women equality, equal opportunities at workplace, equal access to education, equal access to health and equal pay. There are many Indian feminists such as raja Ram Mohan Roy, Jyotirao phule, Savitribai Phule, Tarabai Shinde, Kamini Roy, Sarala Devi Chaudhurani and many more. Feminism absorb that society gives priority to men’s point of view than women which is unfair in our society. In india, history of feminism has divided into three: first phase- 1850 to 1915, second phase- 1915 to 1947 and third phase which was post independence feminism. Feminism as an lead was started by women in maharashtra by leading champion of women’s rights. In 1848, Savitribai phule started first school for girls in india. In 1882, India’s first feminist book called as “Stri Purush Tulana” a comparison between men and women which is written by Tarabai Shinde. Pandita Ramabai who lead for the women’s rights and education rights for women in India. In 19th century there was majority of women’s issues were came into the highlight. In 1955, bollywood group called as cine costume make-up and hair dressers association makes rule that they don’t allow woman to get the membership of makeup artists but the court establish it as illegal of making such rules and instruct that both male and female artist to work as makeup artist in the industry. In 2015, charu khurana was announced first women to be in offical list by CCMAA. There is more need of organisations and campaigns to take proper care of women’s rights in india.

    Manpreet Singh
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    The recently released movie Pink makes people sit back and consider things that have been long forgotten, a film that emphasizes a woman’s freedom to her body and sexuality. The main focus of this film is to accept the two distinct standards of society: the conceptions of the priorities of male privilege, moralization and misogyny faced or likely to be experienced by women across the country on a daily basis. While in modern India the patriarchy is firmly rooted, the country has a long history of women, even under strong social pressure, who have fought to comply. Here’s a look at India’s amazing journey through the years.
    Several allusions of women intellectuals like Lopamudra, Maitreyi, and Gargi occur in the early Vedic literature. Gargi Vachaknavi is thought to be a pioneer among the educated ladies of her age. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, it was stated that during a public argument with Vedic philosopher Yajnavalkya philosopher she raised some of the deepest problems in Vedanta – the nature of the soul (Brahman) and the beginnings of the cosmos. Years later, during the 10th century, Kashmir was ruled by Queen Didda, who was disabled by a leg. His enormous political survival skill, the capacity to rule, and the stability she had achieved in the fractured kingdom, are why she was sometimes referred to as Catherine of Kashmir as the ruthless Catherine of the Great (the longest-ruling female leader of Russia). Many of the first battles were witnessed by trained middle-class individuals like Raja Ram Mohan Roy (who crucified social problems like Sati, polygamy, and marriage to children), Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (who championed the cause of widow remarriage), and DD Karve (who sought to eliminate widows). In the course of the struggle against child marriage by Behram Malabari, Mahadev Govind Ranade created a Widow Marriage Association in 1861.
    During this time the status quo was also still challenged by Indian women, who were struggling for their place in the sun. Some women who became feminist ideals include Anandibai Joshi – the first Indian to study abroad, Kamini Roy – who led the suffragist movement of India and fought for women’s right to education, Kadambini Ganguli – one of India’s first two female graduates and one who studied in a men’s college to become a teacher.

    Semantee Chattopadhyay
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    Feminism in India is a set of movements that redefined, re-established and defended equal political, economic, and social rights and opportunities for women in India. The history of feminism in India is divided into three phases namely,
    1. The first phase: It began in the mid 19th century. It was initiated when reformists began to speak in favour of women rights by making reforms in education, customs involving them etcetera.
    2. The second phase: It began around 1915 and went till Indian independence. It began when Gandhi incorporated women’s movement into the quit India movement and independent women’s organisations began to emerge.
    3. The third phase: It began post-independence. It has focused on fair treatment of women at home after marriage, in the workforce and right to a political party.
    Raja ram Mohan Roy and other male figures took on what was thought of as social evils- Sati, widowhood, child marriage, female infanticide, etcetera. The British had pointed out how backward we were. By the end of the 19th century, there arose a situation where on one hand, we had a national movement asking the British to leave, where on the other, people wear petitioning the very same British state saying that they wanted to raise the age of marriage of girls. So, this time the nationalists told the reformers this is not the time to be going in for reform. Interestingly what they also said was that they needed to have symbols. They needed cultural symbols of the uncolonized nation. The Hindu woman was the most potent cultural symbol. So they thought of the woman in the home, who was not to be seen outside who hadn’t fallen afoul urban subjected by the British rule. As they thought that the women were pure they would be the right kind of symbols for the new nation. The woman as a bearer of Indian culture was a very patriarchal construct.

    038 deepika Singh
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    Feminism is a belief that promotes equality between genders. It’s main aim is to lift up women and bring them to the same level as men. It gives women the much needed voice in a patriarchal word. It ensures that women are paid equally for the same work and are not abused by men. It supports equality in education and opportunities.
    In India, the First Wave of Indian Feminism started in 1850 -1920, this phase uprooted the age old practice of Sati. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first who spoke against the subjugation of women’s rights, he out rightly opposed the idea of Sati. And suddenly a wave of feminism started, questions were raised against the sanctity of laws which prohibited remarriage of widows by passing the Widow’s Remarriage Act 1856.
    The Second Wave of Indian Feminism was around 1920 -1980. Women actively participate in the feminist movement in this phase. They demanded for the freedom and liberty of their husbands. They became more aware of their rights and this movement grew further and women urged each other to come up and stand against the patriarchy.
    The Third Wave of Indian Feminism particularly highlighted the harassment against women. Sexual Harassment at workplace was considered as important issue to be discussed. The Supreme Court of India during that time introduced Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace Act, 2013 which was one of the biggest achievement of this period. Many such waves of feminism followed later….like #MeToo movement.

    Though a lot still needs to be achieved and there are various impediments in making this reality available to a large section of women, the women’s movement has brought women’s issues centre stage and made them more visible, contributing immensely to women’s struggle for equality

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