Water crisis is a situation when available potable and unpolluted water in a region is less than the region’s demand. Water crisis is a global phenomena and India is no exception to it. According to NITI AAYOG’s report 21 cities of India will run out of groundwater by 2020. According to NITI AAYAOG’s composite water management index per capita availability of water is only 1300cubic meter which was 6008 cubic meter at the time of independence. India ranks 120 among 122 countries in Global Water quality index which speaks of the grim situation.
There are many causes of water crisis like high population so high demand of water, deforestation, rapid urbanization, lack of civic sense in people regarding water conservation, excessive use of tube wells, excessive use for agricultural practices, pollution of freshwater bodies by industrial effluents and ash spillage, climate change is major reason due to which glaciers are shrinking and freshwater is evaporating.
Impact are equally perilous like disputes between the states for water and a possibility of war for water in future, many places will run out of water so their survival will become difficult, food shortage, sanitation problems, energy shortages and economic slowdown.
Possible solution are use of drip irrigation in farming, stringent laws on water pollution, rainwater harvesting, renovation of tradition and other water bodies, reuse of water (greywater) and recharging of structures, watershed management and intense afforestation. State governments have taken various steps like “Jal swawlamban abhiyaan” (Rajasthan), “Jalyukta shivar” (Maharashtra) and “Mission kakatiya” (Telangana) and central government’s jal shakti abhiyaan for addressing the water crisis.
The government is making every effort to eradicate this dreadful dilemma but our contributions are required. For when these missions are energized by people’s participation, they become vibrant mass movement.