Well there are of course many methods listed and we all have been studying them since our adolescence. These contraceptive methods are not only for avoiding unwanted pregnancies but also for avoiding sexually transmitted disease.
There are two types of methods – spacing and terminal methods.
The spacing method includes spacing the time It includes many methods like
Post conceptional method
Physical methods include barrier methods, withdrawal ,safe period and abstinence.
Physical method includes using a barrier so the sperms don’t enter in vagina so condoms, diaphragms , vaginal sponge etc.
Withdrawal method is to withdraw penis before ejaculation.
Then there is a safe period based on the pattern of menstrual cycles.
After that is abstinence which means having no sex at all.
Chemical method is inducing hormones through injections and pills.
Pills are small doses of estrogen and progesterone and take weekly or monthly.
But these can cause some side effects like nausea and some hormonal changes.
IUDs are sort of loops ,coils, and spirals which are inserted by a doctor which destroys sperm but it can cause ruptures in the uterus.
Then depot contraception which includes infection ,subdermal implants and vaginal rings. Now injections are progesterone injections. Subdermal implants are norplants are rubber nubes with progesterone in it and vagina rings are also having progesterone and are for 3 weeks of menstrual cycle.
Terminal methods are surgical methods of vasectomy for males and tubectomy for women. Vasectomy part of vas deferens is cut and in tubectomy fallopian tubes. Thus these are the things for avoiding pregnancy.